영어 논문 – MLA 형식 포멧 및 인용방법

논문을 쓰는 분들이나 해외에서 공부하는 유학생분들에게
페이퍼 인용방법은 매우 중요합니다!
그 중에서 오늘은 MLA형식에 대해 설명 드리겠습니다.

MLA형식 = Modern Language Association of America

■ 폰트 크기: 12
■ 폰트: Times New Roman
■ 2줄 간격 (Double-spaced)
■ 좌우간격 1인치 (One-inch margins on all sides; 2.54cm)
■ 새 문단을 시작할 때는 Tab키로 여백을 줌

MLA 스타일에서 책 인용은 저자의 이름, 제목, 출판도시, 출판사, 출판년도, 출판매체를 순서대로 적습니다.

일반적 책 인용 형식은 아래와 같습니다.

저자. 제목. 출판도시: 출판사, 출판년도. 출판매체
Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma. New York: Penguin Group, 2006. Print.

책 인용 방법

MLA형식으로 책 인용을 할 때는 일반적으로
저자의 이름, 책 제목, 출판사, 출판자명, 출판된 연도와 인쇄매체의 종류(예: 인쇄본)를 포함한다.

General book format
Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma. New York: Penguin Group, 2006. Print.

Single author
Pollan, Michael.

Two or three authors
Bell, James K., and Adrian A. Cohn.

More than three authors
Kernis, Michael. et al.

More than seven authors
Kernis, Michael. et al.
Corporate/Organization author
American Psychiatric Association.

Unknown author
Oxford Essential World Atlas.

Two or more works by the same author
No change to name format; change noted by title.

Two or more works by the same author in the same year.
No change to name format; change noted by title.

Author with an editor
Poston, Ted. A Draft of History. Ed. Kathleen A. Hauke.

Author with a translator
Laplace, P.S. A Philosophical Essay on Probabilities. Trans. F. W. Truscott and F. L. Emory.

Editor with no author
Consequences of Growing Up Poor. Eds. G.J. Duncan and J. Brooks-­‐Gunn.

Work in an anthology
Harris, Muriel. “Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Writers.” A Tutor’s Guide: Helping Writers One to One Ed. Ben Rafoth. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2000. 24-­‐34. Print.

Edition other than first
Helfer, M.S., R.S. Keme, and R.D. Drugman. The Battered Child. 5th ed.

Multivolume work
Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Ed. P. Wiener. 4 Vols.

Posner, Rebecca. “Romance Languages.” The Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropedia. 15th ed. 1987. Print.

Foreword, introduction, preface, or afterword
Duncan, Hugh Dalziel. Introduction. Permanence and Change: An Anatomy of Purpose.

Articles in Periodicals
Although periodicals are cited similarly to most book sources, MLA’s seventh edition makes some distinctions specific to periodicals.

Poniewozik, James. “TV Makes a Too-­‐ Close Call.” Time 20 Nov. 2000: 70-­‐71. Print.

Journal paginated by issue
Bagchi, Alaknanda. “Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu.” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature 15.1 (1996): 41-­‐50. Print.

Daily newspaper
Krugman, Andrew. “Fear of Eating.” New York Times 21 May 2007. A1. Print.

Editorial in newspaper
“Of Mines and Men.” Editorial. Wall Street Journal east. ed. 24 Oct 2003: A14. Print.

Letter to the editor
Hamer,John. Letter. American Journalism Review Dec. 2006/Jan. 2007: 7. Print.

Book or film review
Seitz, Matt Zoller. “Life in the Sprawling Suburbs, If You Can Really Call It Living.” Rev. of Radiant City, dir. Gary Burns and Jim Brown. New York Times 30 May 2007 late ed.: E1. Print.

Online Sources

General format
Author. Title of Site. Sponsor, Date created (use n.d. if not given). Medium. Date accessed.

Entire Website
United States Environmental Protection Agency. Drinking Water Standards. EPA, 8 July 2004. Web. 24 Jan. 2006

Page from Website
Shiva, Vandana. “Bioethics: A Third World Issue.” Nativeweb. Nativeweb, n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2006.

Page from Website with unknown author
“Media Giants.” Frontline: The Merchants of Cool. PBS Online, 2001. Web. 7 Feb. 2006.

Image from a Website
Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. Museo National del Prado. Web. 22 May 2006.

Online book
Milton, John. Paradise Lost: Book I. Poetryfoundation.org. Poetry Foundation, 2008. Web. 14 Dec. 2008.

Portion of an online book
Adams, Henry. “Diplomacy.” The Education of Henry Adams. By Adams. Boston: Houghton, 1918. N. pag. Bartleby.com: Great Books Online. Web. 8 Jan 2007.

Article in an online journal
Bent, Henry E. “Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree.” The Journal of Higher Education 30.3 (1959): 140-­‐ 145. Web. 5 Dec. 2008.

Article in an online magazine/ newspaper
Bernstein, Mark. “10 Tips on Writing the Living Web.” A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites. A List Apart Mag., 16 Aug. 2002. Web. 4 May 2009.

Entire blog
Mayer, Caroline. The Checkout. Washington Post, 10 Jan. 2007. Web. 19 Jan. 2007.

Response in a blog
Editor, screen name, author, or compiler name (if available). “Posting Title.” Name of Site. Version number (if available). Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher). Medium of publication. Date of access.

“Pimpernel.” The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 4th ed. Boston; Houghton, 2000. CD-­‐ ROM.

Kunka, Andrew. “Re: Modernist Literature.” Message to the author. 15 Nov 2000. E-­‐mail.

Multimedia Sources

Video or film
An Inconvenient Truth. Dir. David Guggenheim. Narr. Al Gore. Paramount, 2006. DVD.

Murphy, Beth. “Tips for a Good Profile Piece.” Project: Report. YouTube, 7 Sept. 2008. Web. 19 Sept. 2008.

Lecture/Public address
Teplin, Linda A. et. al. “Early Violent Death in Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.” Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-­‐Law-­‐Society La Jolla, California. March, 2005. Presentation.

Other Sources

The Purdue OWL
Main Components for Effective Outlines”. Purdue Online Writing Lab. Purdue
University, 7 April, 2010. Web. 20 Dec. 2010.

Government publication
Continental Congress. Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-­‐1789. Washington DC. 1904-­‐1937.

Choi, Mihwa. “Contesting Imaginaries in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” Diss. University of Chicago, 2008. Web. “Contesting Imaginaries in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.”

In-­‐Text Citations

Citing Books

Author named in a signal phrase
Philosopher Stephen C. Pepper refers to this phenomenon as a “cumulative collaboration of evidence” (49).

Author not named in a signal phrase
This phenomenon is best referred to as a “cumulative collaboration of evidence” (Pepper 49).

Unknown author
This phenomenon is best referred to as a “cumulative collaboration of evidence” (World Hypotheses 49).

Unknown page number
This phenomenon is best referred to as a “cumulative collaboration of evidence” (Pepper).

More than one work by the same author
Philosopher Stephen C. Pepper refers to this phenomenon as a “cumulative collaboration of evidence” (World Hypotheses 49), which he hints toward in earlier work as well (“Emergence” 241).

Two or three authors
Shirley K Rose and Irwin Weiser note in Going Public the importance of redefining expectations for faculty work (3).

Four or more authors
Some studies that focus specifically on undergraduate perspectives of academic writing found a variety of approaches (Anderson et al. 11).

Corporate author
The American Psychological Association’s study demonstrated the significant role of prayer as a coping mechanism for health (67).

Authors with the same last name
Use the first initial to differentiate (A. Smith 19).

Romance languages have a curious history (“Romance Languages”).

Multivolume work
Use the volume number followed by the page number in the citation, e.g., (2:119).

Two or more works in the same parentheses
Many 19th century American authors noted the importance of religion in conceiving nature (Emerson 1123; Thoreau 1994).

An entire work
Thoreau’s “Walking” demonstrates a fascination with sauntering.

Work in an anthology
Use the selection’s name and page number, not the editor. The life of poverty in the south is captured by Hurston’s candid autobiography, “From Dust Tracks on a Road” (336).

Multimedia Sources

Video or film
The role of Irish folklore is depicted in contemporary films such as John Sayles’s, The Secret of Roan Inish.

Use video author/podcast name and given title.

The quirks of spending become obvious when listening to productions such as David Kesetenbaum’s podcast, “A Big Bridge in the Wrong Place,” on Planet Money.

Lecture/Public address
The problem of violent death among delinquent youths was carefully documented by Teplin et al. in an address delivered in 2005 at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-­‐Law-­‐Society.

Other Sources

The Purdue OWL
Karl Stolley and Allen Brizee write in the Online Writing Lab at Purdue University, “Research-­‐based writing in American institutions, both educational and corporate, is filled with rules that writers, particularly beginners, aren’t aware of or don’t know how to follow” (“Avoiding Plagiarism”).

Government publication
According to the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, the Emerald Ash Borer invasion in Pennsylvania has led to dozens of county quarantines in recent years.


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